Key Technologies 2019
Rich in lessons and easy to read despite the complexity of the subject, this report is the fourth edition of a prospective analysis carried out every four years since 1995 by the Ministry of Industry. Designed with the participation of 250 specialists, it identifies 85 technologies of the future in seven economic sectors: chemistry, information and communication technologies (ICT), environment, energy, transport, building and health (which includes agriculture and agri-food). This large-scale work is intended to help public and private actors – the State and local authorities as well as large industrialists and SMEs – in their strategic choices.
The context, as well as the major socio-economic issues for 2019-2020, are presented, first and foremost, for each of the previously defined sectors. With regard to the ICT sector, the established scope includes all sectors related to technologies, content and digital services, namely industrial electronics and components; consumer electronics (audio and video equipment); computer hardware (servers, PCs and peripherals, data transmission equipment); telecommunications equipment (network equipment, terminals, software and related services); embedded software and IT services, infrastructure or applications, professional and consumer (video games); software internet services (search engines, social networks); telecommunications services (fixed and mobile telephony); data transmissions; multimedia services and contents (television, video, cinema, digital music, radio, digital books, etc.), as well as simulation, modeling and intensive computing.
All these activities weighed nearly 2,800 billion euros globally in 2009, according to Idate. The information and communication technology sector is now a major segment of the economy of the major industrialized countries. It contributes nearly 6% of GDP in Europe against 7.5% in the United States. In addition, it influences the growth of all other economic sectors with a contribution of about 50% to productivity growth in Europe, according to the European Commission. Essential to the functioning and competitiveness of companies, ICTs are also present in every corner of everyday life. They constitute the main vector of the advancement of the knowledge society.
The report then analyzes the situation of France, its advantages, its weaknesses as well as the competitive opportunities and threats that concern it, with regard to future technologies such as robotics, wireless network technologies, optical broadband networks. , communicating objects, 3D technologies, human-machine interface, complex systems engineering and system systems, intensive computing, progressive / intelligent manufacturing, optoelectronics, nanoelectronics, content scanning technologies , holistic security, virtualization and cloud computing, embedded software and associated processors, data recovery and intelligence, and finally, portals, collaboration and unified communications.
With spending equal to 0.34% of GDP, France is slightly above the European average (0.30%) for research and development (R & D) in the ICT sector but remains below level reached by the United States (0.72%), Japan (0.87%) and South Korea (1.30%), the leading country in this field.
Although France has a rather weak presence in certain sectors such as consumer electronics, it nevertheless occupies an important place in the European electronic components industry, particularly for smart cards, contactless cards and